Vitamin C, often known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin synthesized from glucose. It’s only a vitamin for animals which have misplaced the enzyme Gulonolactone Oxidase, which is the final step in ascorbate synthesis. These animals embody primates, bats, guinea pigs and perching birds. The response is:
Capabilities Vitamin C features primarily as an antioxidant by sacrificing itself to be able to stop the oxidation of different molecules. Vitamin C helps to type collagen, which strengthens blood vessel partitions, types scar tissue, and supplies a matrix for bone development. Vitamin C additionally aids within the metabolism of amino acids and thyroxin synthesis, together with aiding within the absorption of iron. Many consider that vitamin C additionally aids within the physique’s capacity to struggle off a chilly. Though this has not been fully confirmed, analysis has proven that vitamin C does enhance the physique’s immune defenses.
Ascorbate is concerned in 2 basic sorts of reactions, all of which contain hydroxylation utilizing molecular oxygen:
1. Monooxygenase: are dependent upon Cu++, O2
ex: Norepinephrine synthesis, peptide hormone amidation
· Norepinephrine synthesis within the adrenal medulla: Dopamine + O2 + ascorbate, + Cu+ Norepinephrine + H2O + dehydroascrobate + Cu++
· Peptide hormone amidation: Peptide-(glycine) peptide-NH2 + glyoxylate (CHO-CHOOH)
Contains: CCK, vasopression, gastrin releasing issue, gastrin, melanotropin, development hormone launch issue, MSH, corticotropin and calcitonin.
2. Dioxygenases: are dependent upon Fe++, O2, and a-ketoglutarate ex: carnitine synthesis, tyrosine degradation, hydroxylation of collagen
· Hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen:
That is discovered on many proteins of the extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin), in addition to on C1q part of the complement, and perhaps on acetylcholinesterase. The operate of the ascorbate right here, like that of the monooxygenase reactions, is to function a decreasing agent for the Fe++ used within the response. It’s the failure of hydroxylate collagens that results in survey.
· Tyrosine Degradation (4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase):
Decreased ascorbate ranges leads to decreased muscle carnitine ranges, and thus decreased oxidation of fatty acid within the mitochondria. Muscle synthesized on the protein and launched as such upon protein degradation; it’s discovered on proteins comparable to histones, calmodulin, myosin, cytochrome c. General, for those who lower vitamin C, you’ll have a lower in carnitine and subsequently a lower in beta-oxidation and thus the muscle should depend on different vitality types as a result of it’s not in a position to switch fatty acids effectively into the mitochondria.
Deficiency Scurvy is the title given to somebody who severely lacks vitamin C. Acknowledgement of scurvy signs dates again to the Papryrus of Elber, Egypt, in roughly 1550 BC. Documentation of scurvy signs additionally exist throughout the explorations of Jacques Cartier in 1535. It was presently that Native People taught Cartier to make use of white cedar extract in deal with his sailors that have been dying from scurvy. On the time, nobody knew precisely what should be blamed for this, till a British doctor determined to conduct a research that supplied a couple of sailors with lime juice. Those that consumed the lime juice didn’t develop scurvy, thus giving them the nickname “limeys.” Finally the issue was remoted from the lime juice and located to be the 6-carbon glucose construction termed ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
Signs embody microcytic anemia, hemorrhaging, bleeding gums, muscular tissues start to degenerate, joint ache, and failure of wounds to heal. Vitamin C, although, is quickly reversible by taking reasonable dosages of the vitamin.
Signs of scurvy: o Tender bones (lack of collagen matrix, perhaps lack of sulfonation) o Gum bleeding, enamel loosening (lack of cell matrix) o Capillary bleeding (lack of extracellular matrix supporting capillaries) o Slowed wound therapeutic (depends on collagen and the extracellular matrix) o Coiled hair (adjustments in collagen construction within the hair) o Psychosis, hysteria, melancholy (?? Lack of neurotransmitters??)
People are in danger for growing a vitamin C deficiency with an elevated consumption of steroid or fragrant medication. These enhance the necessity for ascorbate to hydoxylate and take away the compounds from the physique. Examples of all these medication embody: oral contraceptives, toxins, barbituates and stress-related glucocorticoids.
People who smoke cigarettes even have a excessive requirement for vitamin C. These people have a considerably decrease serum focus. That is believed to be as a result of toxins within the smoke that promote harmful oxidation and free radical reactions within the lungs and physique; prevention and correction of those reactions depletes the physique of ascorbate. People who smoke are really helpful to extend their ascorbate consumption to 100 mg/day.
Toxicity Despite the fact that vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin, supplementing with extreme vitamin C might be harmful. In sure people excessive doses could cause iron toxicity on account of its mobilization impact.
Sources o citrus fruits (i.e. oranges, kiwi, and mangoes) o cabbage-type greens (i.e. spinach) o darkish inexperienced greens (i.e. broccoli, snow peas, and brussels sprouts) o papayas o cantaloupe o strawberries o crimson bell peppers o lettuce o tomatoes o potatoes